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Switzerland: Double Tax Treaties


This page was last updated on 9 April 2021.

Switzerland has double taxation treaties with over 80 other countries, more than 30 of which are based on the OECD model. The general effect of the treaties for non-residents from treaty countries is that they can obtain a partial or total refund of tax withheld by the Swiss paying agent. Although the full amount of withholding tax is deducted at source the difference can be re-claimed by the non resident from the Swiss tax authorities. Where there is no double taxation treaty in place withholding taxes deducted in the foreign jurisdiction on remittances paid to a Swiss entity give rise to a tax credit in Switzerland.

No withholding tax is levied on royalties paid to foreign beneficiaries. Profits repatriated abroad by the Swiss branch of a foreign company do not attract withholding taxes irrespective of any double taxation treaty.

Treaty abuse: A repayment of withholding taxes under the terms of a treaty will be denied where there has been "abuse". Abuse occurs when a foreign-controlled legal entity which is resident in Switzerland fails one of the four following tests:

  • The entity must have a reasonable debt/equity ratio (generally the total of all interest-bearing loans should not exceed 6 times the company's equity);
  • The entity must not pay excessive interest rates on debt (for the purposes of this test the accepted rate varies from time to time);
  • The entity must not pay more than 50% of its income as management fees, interest or royalties to non residents;
  • The entity must distribute at least 25% of the income which could be distributed as dividend.

Where any one of the four tests are failed, the portion of withholding tax deducted and which is deemed refundable under the terms of the treaty is not refunded.

Additionally, treaty provisions do not apply to dividends, interest or royalties paid by a Swiss entity to a German, Italian, French or Belgian entity if the Swiss entity is wholly or partly exempt from cantonal tax under the tax incentives applicable to specific types of company (i.e. domiciliary, holding, auxiliary, mixed and service companies). See Offshore Legal and Tax Regimes.

The following are some of the countries which have double-tax treaties with Switzerland:

  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Bangladesh
  • Barbados
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • China
  • Colombia
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Georgia
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • Greece
  • Hong Kong
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Iran
  • Ireland
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Ivory Coast
  • Jamaica
  • Japan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kuwait
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Latvia
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Macedonia (FYROM)
  • Malaysia
  • Malta
  • Mexico
  • Moldova
  • Mongolia
  • Montenegro
  • Morocco
  • Netherlands
  • New Zealand
  • Norway
  • Pakistan
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Qatar
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Serbia
  • Singapore
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • South Africa
  • South Korea
  • Spain
  • Sri Lanka
  • Sweden
  • Taiwan
  • Tajikistan
  • Thailand
  • Trinidad & Tobago
  • Tunisia
  • Ukraine
  • United Arab Emirates
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
  • Uruguay
  • Uzbekistan
  • Venezuela
  • Vietnam

In addition to this impressive list, there are pending treaties awaiting ratification between Switzerland and Pending: Costa Rica, Oman and Zimbabwe.

On 13 March 2009, the Federal Council announced that Switzerland intends to adopt OECD standards on administrative assistance in tax matters in accordance with Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. The decision permits the exchange of information with other countries in individual cases where a specific and justified request has been made. The Federal Council decided to withdraw the corresponding reservation to the OECD Model Tax Convention and to enter into negotiations on revising double taxation agreements. It maintains, however, that Swiss banking secrecy remains intact.

According to the Swiss, the adoption of the OECD standard will have no impact on the situation for taxpayers resident in Switzerland. The right of the Swiss tax authorities to access bank data under Swiss domestic law is not affected by the decision, stated the Federal Council's release. The Council also stated that it "resolutely rejects any form of automatic exchange of information."

The decision of the Federal Council is being implemented within the framework of bilateral double taxation agreements. The greater scope for exchange of information only has practical effects when the renegotiated agreements come into force. In addition, adjustments must be made to the agreement with the EU on the taxation of savings income.

The Federal Council laid out the following conditions for its future policy on administrative assistance in tax matters:

  • Respect for established administrative assistance procedures
  • Restriction of administrative assistance to individual cases (no fishing expeditions)
  • Fair transitional solutions
  • Limitation to taxes covered by the OECD Model Tax Convention
  • The principle of subsidiarity in accordance with the Model Tax Convention
  • Willingness to eliminate discrimination.

In October 2010, an agreement was signed to begin negotiations towards an agreement that will see undeclared accounts held by Britons in Switzerland taxed and more information with regards tax and banking information shared between the two states. The agreement will, among other things, expand cross-border cooperation in tax matters and improve market access for banks. Negotiations commenced at the beginning of 2011 and the agreement was signed on 6 October 2011. A protocol clarifying outstanding issues was signed on 20 March 2012.

The protocol became necessary to appease the EU Commission which had expressed the view that the agreement might contravene the European treaty. Threatened with a possible challenge at the European Court of Justice, the UK and Switzerland have agreed that account holders who have already paid the 35% withholding tax as due under the European Savings Tax Directive will be subject to a final 13% withholding tax in order to discharge tax liability on interest payments.

The protocol also provides for inheritance to be included in the agreement. Beneficiaries of an undisclosed Swiss bank account must either pay inheritance tax or consent to it being disclosed to the UK authorities. To a large extent this agreement follows the OECD model agreement and Swiss policies in this regard.

The statistics for January to July 2010 show that imports from Switzerland were EUR72m (mainly pharmaceuticals, jewellery, electric machinery), down from EUR91.2m for the same period in 2009, while Malta’s exports rose to EUR9.3m (mainly machinery and pharmaceuticals) compared to EUR5.7m in the first half of 2009. The agreement will enter into force following ratification by both countries.


Latest Switzerland Treaty Updates

Treaty Update: United Kingdom - Switzerland
28 February, 2020
On February 27, 2020, the UK Government published the text of the 2008 Switzerland-UK memorandum of understanding on investment vehicles, the 2008 Switzerland-UK memorandum of understanding on pension schemes, and the 2017 Protocol to the 1977 UK-Switzerland Double Taxation Convention, and confirmed their entry into force. The 2017 DTA Protocol is effective starting January 1, 2020, and will be fully in effect from April 6, 2020.
Treaty Update: United Kingdom - Switzerland
09 August, 2019
A Protocol to the DTA between Switzerland and the UK, to introduce BEPS amendments, entered into force on July 16, 2019.
Treaty Update: Switzerland - Ecuador
10 May, 2019
The Swiss Government on May 7, 2019, confirmed that the Protocol to the country's DTA with Ecuador entered into force on April 17, 2019.
Treaty Update: Ukraine - Switzerland
29 January, 2019
Ukraine and Switzerland signed a DTA Protocol on January 24, 2019.
Treaty Update: Pakistan - Switzerland
10 December, 2018
On November 29, 2018, the DTA between Pakistan and Switzerland entered into force.
Treaty Update: Ghana - Switzerland
19 November, 2018
On October 29, 2018, the amending protocol to the DTA between Ghana and Switzerland entered into force.
Treaty Update: Kosovo - Switzerland
07 November, 2018
On October 10, 2018, the DTA between Kosovo and Switzerland entered into force.
Treaty Update: Latvia - Switzerland
08 October, 2018
On September 3, 2018, the amending protocol to the DTA between Latvia and Switzerland entered into force.
Treaty Update: Ecuador - Switzerland
09 August, 2018
On August 1, 2018, Ecuador ratified the pending Protocol to the 1994 DTA with Switzerland.
Treaty Update: Sweden - Switzerland
25 June, 2018
Sweden's Parliament on June 7, 2018, approved an amendment to the country's DTA with Switzerland to clarify the scope of the term pension fund in the agreement.
Treaty Update: Switzerland - Various
11 June, 2018
Switzerland's lower house of Parliament on May 29, 2018, approved DTAs with Kosovo and Pakistan.
Treaty Update: Jordan - Switzerland
30 May, 2018
Talks are continuing on a DTA between Jordan and Switzerland, according to a statement released by Jordan's Foreign Ministry on May 14, 2018.
Treaty Update: Switzerland - Brazil
11 May, 2018
Switzerland and Brazil signed a DTA on May 3, 2018.
Treaty Update: Switzerland - Various
02 May, 2018
The Swiss Federal Council on April 18, 2018, submitted for parliamentary approval dispatches relating to a Protocol to the DTA with Ecuador, and a new DTA with Zambia.
Treaty Update: Switzerland - Various
08 March, 2018
According to preliminary media reports, Switzerland's upper house of parliament of February 26, 2018, approved laws to ratify the DTAs signed with Kosovo and Pakistan and a Protocol with Latvia.
Treaty Update: Saudi Arabia - Switzerland
01 March, 2018
Saudi Arabia and Switzerland signed a DTA on February 18, 2018.
Treaty Update: Saudi Arabia - Switzerland
16 February, 2018
Saudi's Cabinet has approved the signing of a DTA with Switzerland, the state news agency reported on February 6.
Treaty Update: Switzerland - United Kingdom
08 December, 2017
Switzerland and the United Kingdom signed a DTA Protocol on November 30, 2017.
Treaty Update: Switzerland - Pakistan
03 November, 2017
Switzerland's Government on October 25, 2017, adopted a dispatch on the DTA concluded with Pakistan, enabling its ratification.
Treaty Update: Switzerland - Zambia
06 September, 2017
Switzerland and Zambia signed a DTA on August 29, 2017.
Treaty Update: Switzerland - Pakistan
16 March, 2017
Switzerland and Pakistan are expected to sign a TIEA covering bank account information on March 21, 2017.
Treaty Update: Canada - Switzerland
16 January, 2017
A TIEA between Canada and Switzerland for the automatic exchange of information in tax matters came into effect on January 1, 2017.
Treaty Update: Switzerland - Various
13 January, 2017
Switzerland's TIEAs with Belize and Grenada became effective from January 1, 2017.
Treaty Update: Switzerland - Various
06 January, 2017
Switzerland's revised DTAs with Albania and Norway became effective on January 1, 2016.
Treaty Update: Chile - Switzerland
09 December, 2016
Chile and Switzerland have signed an automatic tax information exchange agreement, the Swiss Government confirmed on December 6.
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