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Poland: Types of Company

Company Forms

This page was last updated on 20 November 2020.

The main types of business structure used in Poland are the registered partnership, professional partnership, limited partnership, limited joint-stock partnership, sole proprietorship, joint stock company and limited liability company. Of these, the last two are the most commonly used. Occasionally, foreign companies also set up cooperatives, foundations, branches and representative offices.

Generally, the initial requirements for joint stock companies and limited liability companies are that articles of association must be drawn up, the required share payments must be made, management and supervisory boards must be established in line with the law governing the company type in question and the company must be registered with the National Court Registry (or other body, as appropriate) and the National Statistics Office, and for tax and national insurance purposes with the relevant authorities.  Neither of these company forms may be established by a single shareholder limited liability company.

Information that must be contained in the articles of association and on registration is fairly comprehensive, and includes the name, purpose, duration, share capital, founders and supervisory structures being put in place.

For a joint stock company or SA (Polish: spólka akcyjna), the minimum starting capital is PLN100,000 (at the time of writing), of which 25% must be paid up prior to registration. Other requirements include the appointment of a supervisory board comprising at least three members, and the maintenance of a reserve capital level of 8% of annual net profits (until a threshold of one-third of share capital is reached).

For limited liability companies, the minimum capital requirement is significantly lower, at PLN5,000. A three-member supervisory board is required if share capital exceeds PLN500,000 and there are more than 25 shareholders.



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