Luxembourg: Country and Foreign Investment
Population, Language and Culture
This page was last updated on 17 June 2020.
Luxembourg's modern history began with the Congress of Vienna, which created the autonomous grand duchy; then in 1867 the Treaty of London established Luxembourg's permanent neutrality. In 1948 Luxembourg gave up its neutrality to join the emerging institutions of post-war Europe, becoming a founder member of the EU. Until 1990 the Grand Duchy was merged with the Netherlands under the House of Orange-Nassau, but has since been ruled by its own dynasty.
Culturally, Luxembourg has been most influenced by France and Germany, but has developed a strong sense of its own identity, associated with the formalisation of its own language.
The population of Luxembourg is around 625,000 (2020 estimate), with about 120,000 people living in Luxembourg City. About 44% of the population is foreign. French and German are the official languages, but in 1984 Luxembourgish, a divergent dialect of German with heavy French influence, attained national language status and spoken by most native Luxembourgers. French is most commonly used in public life, and English is also widely spoken.