Romania: Country and Foreign Investment
Government and Legal Structure
The capital of Romania is Bucharest, and the country is divided into 41 counties.
The head of state is the President, who is elected by popular vote for five years (although a second term is permitted). This role has been occupied since December 2004 by Traian Basescu, although he was suspended by a parliamentary vote in April 2007. However, after a referendum on his impeachment, President Basescu resumed his duties in May 2007. On 10 July 2012 President Basescu was suspended for a second time. He survived a referendum and the suspension was lifted on 27 August 2012.
The Prime Minister, meanwhile, is the head of government, and is appointed by the President, and approved by Parliament. Since December 2004, Calin Popescu has been the Prime Minister. There is also a Council of Ministers, who are appointed by the Prime Minister.
The bicameral (or two-chambered) Parliament comprises the Senate (or Senat), which has 137 seats, and to which members are elected for four year terms by popular vote, but on a proportional representation basis. The Chamber of Deputies (or Camera Deputatilor) has 332 seats, and its members are elected in the same way as their Senat counterparts, and for the same period.
The legal system is based on civil law, and has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction.
The Constitutional Court oversees elections and rules on the constitutionality of legislation and internal Parliamentary rules. There is additionally a Supreme Court of Justice, to which the President (in conjunction with the Superior Council of Magistrates), appoints an 11 judge panel, for three year terms.