Monaco: Country and Foreign Investment
Population, Language and Culture
The Emperor Henry VI gave Monaco to the Genoese in 1191, and occupied it until the Grimaldi family seized it in 1297. France recognised its independence in 1489 and after a period of Spanish dominance the Treaty of Peronne gave Monaco autonomy under French protection in 1641. With revolutionary, Napoleonic and Sardinian interludes this has remained the situation ever since.
The population of Monaco is approximately 30,510 people (July 2012). About 16% of the population are Monegasques with the remainder being a cosmopolitan mixture of expatriate French, Italians, British and other European nationalities as well as Americans, Canadians, Australians, South Africans and a spattering of individuals from Middle Eastern countries. All in all 142 different nationalities reside in the Principality. The indigenous Monegasques are largely Roman Catholic and culturally speaking consider themselves part of the French hinterland.
The language of Monaco is French, although Italian and English are also spoken, among many other languages.