Luxembourg: Country and Foreign Investment
Population, Language and Culture
The population of Luxembourg is around 514,862 (2013 est), with about 100,000 people living in and around Luxembourg City. About 44% of the population is foreign. French and German are the official languages, but Luxembourgish, a Mosel-Frankish dialect, attained in 1984 the status of a national language and is the everyday language of native Luxembourgers. English is also widely spoken. French is the language most commonly used in public life.
Luxembourg's modern history began with the Congress of Vienna, which created the autonomous Grand Duchy; then in 1867 the Treaty of London established Luxembourg's permanent neutrality. Until 1990 the Grand Duchy was merged with the Netherlands under the House of Orange-Nassau, but has since been ruled by its own dynasty. In 1948 Luxembourg gave up its neutrality in order to join the emerging institutions of post-war Europe, and was a founder member of the EU.
Culturally, Luxembourg has been most influenced by France and Germany, but has developed a strong sense of its own identity, associated with the formalisation of its own language.